In the Indian financial system, there are two significant segments: the money market and the capital market. The money market fulfils short-term liquidity requirements, whereas the capital market offers a platform for long-term investment opportunities. Instruments in the money market have a maturity period of less than one year, while instruments in the capital market have a maturity period exceeding one year. This Blog explores the distinctions, characteristics, and various types within the money and capital markets.
What is Money Market?
The money market provides opportunities for short-term investments. Within the money market, transactions involve short-duration loans, typically ranging from a day to one year. This market encompasses a wide range of financial instruments, such as treasury bills, commercial paper, banker’s receipts, deposits, certificates of deposit, bills of trade, repurchase agreements, federal funds, and more. These instruments handle varying maturities, credit risks, and compositions. And its focus revolves around dealing with short-term assets. Money markets play a vital role in providing liquidity to the global financial system and are integral components of the broader financial market structure.
The primary purpose of the money market is to address the immediate cash requirements of the economy by managing the cash positions of various participants. In simpler terms, the money market focuses on fulfilling the liquidity needs of the economy.
Types of Money Market Instruments
- Commercial Papers
Big Businesses and Corporations issue Commercial papers in order to raise capital. These corporations possess strong credit ratings, providing a level of assurance for the unsecured nature of these commercial papers. They have a predetermined maturity period that typically spans from 7 days to 270 days. Additionally, investors have the opportunity to trade CPs in the secondary market.
- Exchange Bills
In order to address their immediate financial needs, businesses issue bills of exchange. These bills can be discounted by a broker or a bank, providing the creditor with immediate funds. These instruments are highly liquid, as they can be transferred from one individual to another.
- Treasury Bills
On behalf of the central government, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issues Treasury Bills (T-Bills) as a means to raise funds. T-Bills are financial instruments of short-term nature, with a maximum maturity period of one year. There are different types of T-Bills available, including those with maturities of 14 days, 91 days, and 364 days. These bills are issued at a discount and are repaid at their face value upon maturity.
- Certificate of Deposits
Negotiable term deposits, known as Certificates of Deposits (CDs) are issued by corporates, scheduled commercial banks, trusts, and individuals. These CDs are akin to promissory notes and are accepted by commercial banks. The duration of a CD can range from 3 months to one year. However, CDs issued by financial institutions have a longer duration, typically spanning from one year to three years.
- Repurchase Agreements
Repurchase Agreements, commonly referred to as repos, are contractual arrangements between two parties. In this agreement, one party sells a security to the other party, with the commitment to repurchase the same security at a future date. The seller repurchases the security at a predetermined price and on a specific date. The interest rate charged by the buyer in this transaction is known as the repo rate. Repos serve as a convenient method for fulfilling short-term capital needs while also generating favourable returns for the buyer.
What is Capital Market?
The capital market refers to a marketplace designed for long-term investment opportunities. When industry participants require funds for extended periods, they turn to the capital market. Instruments within the capital market possess a maturity period exceeding one year. Players in the capital market engage in transactions involving various instruments, such as shares, bonds, ETFs (Exchange-Traded Funds), and debentures.
Capital markets in India are characterized by stringent regulations and a well-structured framework. While they carry higher risks compared to money markets, capital markets offer the potential for favourable returns over the long term.
While capital markets inherently carry higher risks compared to money markets, they also present the potential for favourable returns over the long term. Investors participating in capital markets have the opportunity to invest in a wide range of instruments such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds, derivatives, and other securities. These investment options allow individuals and institutions to diversify their portfolios and benefit from the growth and performance of various sectors and companies.
Types of Capital Market Instruments
Bonds are basically financial instruments representing debt obligations. Companies and firms issue bonds to raise funds to support their growth and expansion. Being debt instruments, bondholders receive interest payments. Upon reaching maturity, the issuing company repays the principal amount and the accrued interest.
Stocks symbolize ownership in a company, and these shares are traded on the stock exchange. The price of a share is determined by the interplay of market supply and demand. Individuals who possess shares in a company are referred to as shareholders. Shareholders are entitled to receive dividends. Moreover, in the case of equity shares, they possess voting rights and can actively participate in important decision-making processes.
Difference between Money Market and Capital Market
|Facilitates short-term borrowing and lending
|Supports long-term investments
|Typically, less than one year
|Generally, more than one year
|Treasury bills, certificates of deposit, treasury bills etc.
|Stocks, bonds, mutual funds, derivatives, etc.
|Varies depending on the investment
|Less liquid compared to the money market
|Financial institutions, central banks, corporations
|Investors, companies, financial institutions, governments
|Meeting short-term liquidity needs
|Long-term investment opportunities
Both markets contribute to the overall functioning of the financial system. The money market ensures the smooth flow of funds and short-term liquidity, while the capital market provides avenues for long-term capital raising and investment. Together, they contribute to economic growth, liquidity management, and wealth creation. Understanding the distinctions between the money market and capital market is essential for investors, financial institutions, and policymakers to make informed decisions and effectively manage their financial activities. By utilizing the opportunities presented by both markets, individuals and institutions can optimize their investment and financing strategies, thereby fostering a robust and sustainable financial ecosystem.